National Institute of Materials Physics
Multifunctional Materials and Structures Laboratory
Group of Complex Heterostructures and Perovskite Oxides

Complex system for electrical characterization


The experimental system developed in the last years serves to measure magneto-transport, electrical, electro-optical, parametric, high Z, DC, RF,  photoelectric, ferroelectric and microwave properties, as well as the electrical characteristics of the electrically active defects generated during the growth, implantation, processing or irradiation of the materials and test devices.

Two Janis cryostats,each with 4 optical windows,dedicated to measure one in the temperature range from 20K to 475 K and the other between 77K and 800K. Both cryostats are connected to turbo-molecular vacuum pumps.

Gratting Monochromator Oriel, wavelengths 200-6000 nm, with chopper for modulating the frequency up to 1 kHz for photoelectric signal.

Keithley electrometers (2) with incorporated sources for voltages up to 1000 V. Currents as low as 10 fA can be measured with these electrometers.

Agilent and Hioki RC bridges for capacitance measurements with frequencies up to 5 MHz.

Ferritester 'Precision Premier II' with high voltage interface and amplifier. Technical data:  measuring time: up to 30 sec (minimum depending on the sample properties), voltage: up to 10 kV; Measuring capabilities: electrical hysteresis, remanent hysteresis, fatigue, mechanical hysteresis (together with the Asylum AFM)

Probe-station CPX-VFequipped with4 probe arms, each  with 3-axis adjustments and ±5° theta planarization, and a 25 kOe vertical field superconducting magnet. The temperature range for the probe station is from 4.2 K to 400 K and the measuring frequencies from DC to 67 GHz. The system can operate with external equipment, such as oscilloscopes, RC bridges, electrometers, etc.

TF Analyzer 2000for measuring properties of non-linear dielectrics such as: Hysteresis, Fatigue, Retention, Static hysteresis, Imprint, Leakage current. The system can operate with external equipment, such as oscilloscopes, temperature units, probing stations, high voltage amplifiers, etc.
The last two characterization facilities were purchased in 2009 and were integrally supported from the infrastructure POS-CCE Project of NIMP "Euro-Regional Centre for Advanced Materials, for Surfaces and Interfaces", Project-No. 141/2009, acronym CEUREMAVSU.


HERA-DLTS HE-1030 and TSC Systems

HERA-DLTS HE-1030 and TSC Systems - for detection and characterization of electrically active defects in materials and structures. The electrically active defects generated during the growth, implantation, processing or irradiation are those that has a direct impact on the electrical properties of the materials, multilayer structures and complex devices. Their detection and characterization is essential for improving the growth and processing technologies. The system is sensitive to defects generated in concentration as low as 108 cm-3 and it is an unique facility in our country. The HERA-DLTS HE-1030 system was installed in 2009 and was jointly supported by the Core program contract 45N/2009 and by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

Pulse Laser Deposition System


Pulsed Laser Deposition System - PLD for deposition of oxide materials thin films and multilayers, especially ferroelectrics and multiferroics. Specifications:

  1. excimer laser KrF 248 nm
  2. Four 2" targets with permanent rotation and 5 axis PC controlled motion
  3. substrate temperature:    ≤ 1000°C
  4. high vacuum   10-7 mbar
  5. high-pressure RHEED system for in-situ characterization included


Basic principle of operation


The Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction –RHEED is a technique that can be used during the thin film growth to characterize the surface of crystalline materials and to monitor the deposition of each atomic layer.


Spectroscopic Ellipsometry


Equipment:            DUV-VIS-XNIR VASE
                                 Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer

Manufacturer:        J.A. WOOLLAM CO. INC. (USA)
Description:           The VASE is one of the most accurate and versatile ellipsometer for research on all types of materials: semiconductors, dielectrics, polymers, metals, multi-layers, and more. It combines high accuracy and precision with a wide spectral range - 193 to 2200 nm. Variable wavelength and angle of incidence allow flexible measurement capabilities, including:
                           • Reflection and Transmission Ellipsometry
                           • Generalized Ellipsometry (Anisotropy, Retardance, Birefringence)
                           • Reflectance (R) and Transmittance (T) intensity
                           • Cross-polarized R/T
                           • Depolarization
                           • Scatterometry
                           • Mueller-matrix

I. A complete set up for making oxidic materials by ceramic technology

The set up contains:
- technical and analytical balances;
- planetary ball mils with stainless steel, tungsten carbide and agate vessels;
- electrical ovens up to 1200 oC;
- electrical furnaces for calcining and sintering up to 1450 oC with superkantal heating elements;
- electrical furnace for high temperature sintering up to 1550 oC with crusilite heating elements.


II. A complete set up for mechanical processing of sintered oxidic ceramics

The set up contains:
- cutting machines with diamond discs;
- lapping machines for plan-parallel processing;
- ultrasonic cleaning bathes;
- vacuum electrode deposition equipment and chemical deposition bathes;
- poling sources and equipment up to 60 kV;


III. High energy planetary ball mill PM 400

The planetary ball mill PM 400 pulverizes and mixes soft, medium-hard to extremely hard, brittle and fibrous materials. Dry and wet grinding can be carried out. The high speed of 30 to 400 min-1 in combination with the very large sun wheel diameter of 300 mm guarantee extremely high fineness in a short time. With its powerful, maintenance-free drive the PM 400 is particularly suitable for long-term trials or – in the special version PM 400 MA-type – for mechanical alloying.


- extreme speeds for particularly high fineness down to submicron range
- 4 grinding stations for grinding 2, 4 or 8 samples simultaneously
- grinding jars with volumes from 12 ml to 500 ml, in 6 materials
- suitable for long-term trials and continuous use
- reproducible results due to energy and speed control
- direction reversal
- programmable starting time
- power failure backup ensures storage of remaining grinding time
- 1-button operation with graphic display
- 10 combinations of grinding parameters can be stored
- measurement of input energy helps to optimize grinding parameters
- automatic grinding chamber ventilation for cooling the grinding jars


IV. Ferroelectric Test System Precision Premier II
Radiant Technologies Precision Premier II test system is designed specifically to characterize the electrical properties of non-linear materials. The three characteristics that make the Precision Premier II unique are:
1) The Premier II has the largest operating envelope in terms of polarization vs frequency with minimal distortion,
2) The user can create his or her own test procedures in any format without the need of custom software programming support from Radiant, and
3) All of the tests are generated by a single set of hardware circuits in a single enclosure.
  • Pulse Widths down to 1µs and up to 1s
 Vision controlled output ramp for maximum accuracy
  • Polarization Measurement
    • 18 bit analog to digital converters
    • 0.5µs capture rate with 0.1µs interlace facility
    • Polarization, output voltage and SENSORs captured simultaneously
    • Minimum charge sensitivity ->  1.0fC
    • Minimum PZT capacitor area ->  0.5u2
    • Maximum charge measurement ->  130µC (13.0mC w/HVI attached)
    • Maximum PZT capacitor area -> 1.3cm2 (130cm2 w/HVI attached)
    • Maximum hysteresis loop frequency -> 100KHz 
    • Minimum hysteresis loop frequency -> 1/30th Hz
  • 2 COMM channels for controlling high voltage amplifiers
    • 1 legacy COMM channel
    • 1 I2C COMM channel
  • 2 external ±10V SENSOR inputs


  • Output Range 10V (100V, ±200V optional)
    • 16-bit Arbitrary Waveform Generator output
    • 100KHz  -> 1/30th Hz Hysteresis Frequency
    • 100 points in 10µs
    • 1000 points in 30 seconds
V.  HP 4194A Impedance Gain/Phase Analyzer
Frequency range from 100 Hz up to 100 MHz interfaced with a PC for automatic data acquisition and processing. The parameters that can be measured are: resonance and antiresonance frequencies, impedances, reactances, conductances, susceptances, inductances, losses and quality factors.


  • High accuracy and wide range-Impedance measurement:
    100 Hz to 40 MHz, 0.1 mΩ  to 1.6 MΩ, 0.17% - 10 kHz to 100 MHz, 0.1Ω  to 1 MΩ, 1.5% when used with the HP 41941A/B;
  • Gain-phase measurement:10 Hz to 100 MHz, -107 dBm to +15 dBm, 0.1 dB resolution
  •  Flexible measurement, computation and analysis capabilities on a color graphic display
 Fully programmable


VI. Impedance analyzer Agilent 4294A
The 4294A precision impedance analyzer is an integrated solution for efficient impedance measurement and analysis of components and circuits. The 4294A covers a broader test-frequency range (40 Hz to 110 MHz) with Basic impedance accuracy:+/-0.08 %. Excellent High Q/Low D accuracy enables analysis of low-loss components. The wide signal-level ranges enable device evaluation under actual operating conditions. The test signal level range is 5m V to 1 Vrms or 200 uA to 20m Arms, and the DC bias range is 0 V to +/-40 V or 0m A to +/-100m A. Advanced calibration and error compensation functions eliminate measurement error factors when performing measurements on in-fixture devices. The 4294A is a powerful tool for design, qualification and quality control, and production testing of electronic components.


  • Basic Accuracy
  • Basic impedance accuracy: +/- 0.08 %
  • Frequency 40 Hz to 110 MHz, 3 m ohm 500M ohm
  • Accurate measurement over wide impedance range and wide frequency range
  • Powerful impedance analysis function
  • Ease of use and versatile PC connectivity



VII. Atomic Force Microscope MFP-3D-SA

The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), has been the instrument of choice for three dimensional measurements at the nanometer scale. With the MFP-3D Stand Alone (MFP-3D-SA) AFM, scientists can now choose a sensitive and precise AFM with the lowest noise performance that also includes a complete scientific software environment. The MFP-3D-SA is ideal for many applications including physics, material science, polymers, chemistry, nanolithography, bioscience, and quantitative nanoscale measurements. The MFP-3D has the flexibility to acquire your data, analyze it, and even make publication-ready graphics. Your imagination is your only limit.


MFP 3D AFM stand alone
- scan range XY:> 90 μm
- closed-loop position control with sensor noise < 1 nm (sensor non-linearity < 0,5 % at full scan)
- Z range:> 15 microns, sensor noise <0.4 nm in a 10 kHz BW
- operating modes: Contact, Non-Contact AC, Intermittent Contact (Q-Control, Phase, Amplitude), Force Mode, Force Volume, Lateral Force, Nanolithography, MFM and EFM
- Cantilever holder for operation in air and liquid environment (open configuration)
- Built-in cantilever force calibration capability based on thermal noise spectroscopy Top View Optics Base
- Base for MFP-3D stand alone AFM including micrometer driven flat-travel slide stage for sample positioning and top-down optical access to tip and sample.
PFM–Piezo Force Module with following items
- HVA 220 High Voltage Amplifier
- HV cantilever holder
- HV sample holder
- 70 Electri-Lever

Active Vibration Isolation
- Isolation: dynamic 0.6 Hz to 100 kHz
- Absorption: above 5 Hz:> 25 dB, 10 Hz:> 40 dB
Acoustic Enclosure
- Enclosure designed for ultrasensitive equipment, such as AFMs
- Up to 40 dB of acoustic isolation


Gamma 1000C is a state-of-the-art sputtering tool, highly-optimised for both performance and versatility of use.  It is capable of depositing conducting and insulating layers of materials in sequence or simultaneously - with unmatched film uniformity - and is ideal for users seeking the optimum quality. Featuring a hydrocarbon and particle free vacuum pumping system, a processing chamber with fast-access entry, and a graphical HMI offering both fine manual control and recipe-driven operation, Gamma 1000C is the ideal platform for R&D and pilot production.


- 4 Targets with fast change magnet packs so changing magnetron field strength takes no longer than a target change.
- Sputter Down so no target re-contamination by falling film particles that are then re sputtered as an alloy contaminant in high purity materials
- Co Deposition with wafer rotation for alloy sputtering used in special alloy and material creation
- Turbo pumped HV Load lock with automatic wafer transfer should give fast transfer to sputter chamber with minimal contamination.
- Degas in load lock should give a better surface for film adhesion with less etched contamination in the sputter chamber
- Cryo Pumped and hydrocarbon free vacuum
- UHV (1 x 10-8 torr)
- GammaSoft™ SCADA PC control
- Fully interlocked automatic control
- Recipe creation and storage limited only by the computer’s hard disk drive
- CMS capable with wedge or gradient growth power ramping
- High temperature annealing and processing chuck to allow high temperature processing during growth and post annealing without breaking vacuum.
- Sputter etch and RF bias on wafer chuck (worktable)
- Very fast chamber access to let the operator change sputter targets, shutter blades and shields quickly with minimal


  • Terahertz Time-Domain Spectrometer -Aispec pulse IRS 2000 pro, was installed for characterization materials and structures in THz frequency range. The main characteristics of the spectrometer are: Wave-number range: 1.3 – 230 cm-1, Wave-number resolution: <= 0.03 cm-1, Signal to noise ratio: >=2500, Dynamic range: 7 orders of magnitude (measurement within 30 minutes), Measurement spot size: F5mm or less (above 10 cm-1) or less than F3mm (above 20 cm-1), Sample size: (Max.) 45 mm x 35 mm.
    • Agilent PNA-X N5245A Vector Network Analyzer. As standalone, the PNA-X operates in the 10 MHz to 50 GHz frequency range. However, the N5261A 2-Port Millimeter – wave Test Set Controller and the millimeter-wave head modules (220-325 GHz and 325-500 GHz). It can measure and can measure the non-linear X parameters. The PNA-X works with a 3.5m x 4 m x 3m semi-anechoic chamber for free space measurements.
    • Agilent E8361 A Vector Network Analyzer (10 MHz to 67 GHz as standalone, and up to 220 GHz by using 3 pairs of OML millimeter wave extensions) connected to Microprobe station Cascade Microtech Summit 12000B-S, GSG pitch 150 mm.
    • Software for electromagnetic simulation: (CST Suite 2011 including CST Microwave Studio, Antenna Magus etc. Ansoft / Ansys HFSS 13, Ansoft Designer )
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